Figure 1: pH values determine which kind of chloramine is formed
Table 1: various types of chloramines and their properties
What are the applications of chloramines?
Chloramine disinfection can be improved by raising temperatures.
|Discharge demands |
When cooling tower water is tapped from a river or lake, and must be discharged into the same water body after it has been used, it must meet certain discharge demands. Aditionally, the water temperature may not be too high, because warm water has a low oxygen content, which promotes algal growth. This can cause fish mortality and a decrease in water biodiversity.
Discharge demands for cooling tower water in the USA are mentioned in the Clean Water Act (CWA) and are established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
More information on water disinfection?:
What is water disinfection? Necessity of drinking water disinfection History of water disinfection Waterborne diseases Factors that influence disinfection Conditions of water disinfection Regulation drinking water disinfection EU USA