Magnesium - Mg
Chemical element, metallic, symbol Mg, situated in group IIa in the periodic table, atomic number: 12, atomic weight: 24,312. Magnesium is silvery white and very light. Its relative density is 1,74 and it’s density 1740 kg/m3 (0.063 lb/in3 or 108.6 lb/ft3). Magnesium is known for a long time as the lighter structural metal in the industry, due to it’s low weight and to it’s capability of forming mechanically resistant alloys.
Magnesium is very chemically active, it takes the place of hydrogen in boiling water and a great number of metals can be produced by thermic reduction of its salts and oxidized forms with magnesium. It joins together with most non-metals and almost every acid. Magnesium reacts only slightly or not at all with most of the alkalis and many organic substances, like hydrocarbons, aldehides, alcohols, phenols, amines, esters and most of the oils. Used as a catalyst, magnesium promotes organic reactions of condensation, reduction, addition and dehalogenization. It was used for a long time for synthesizing special and complex organic components by the well-known Grignard reaction. The main ingredients of the alloys are: aluminum, manganese, zircon, zinc, rare-earth metals and thorium.
Magnesium compounds are used as refractory material in furnace linings for producing metals (iron and steel, nonferrous metals), glass, and cement.
Magnesium in the environment
Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2% af the Earth's crust by weight, and it is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater.
There is no evidence that magnesium produces systemic poisoning although persistent over-indulgence in taking magnesium supplements and medicines can lead to muscule weakness, lethargy and confusion.
Effects of exposure to magnesium powder: low toxicity & not considered to be hazardous to health. Inhalation: dust may irritate mucous membranes or upper respiratory tract. Eyes: mechanical injury or particle may embed in eye. Viewing of burning magnesium powder without fire glasses may result in "Welder's flash", due to intense white flame. Skin: embedding of particle in skin. Ingestion: unlikely; however, ingestion of large amounts of magnesium powder could cause injury.
Physical dangers: Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. If dry, it can be charged electrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc.
First Aid: Inhalation: remove to fresh air. Eyes: flush eyes with water thoroughly. Consult a physician. Skin: wash with soap & water thoroughly to remove particles. Ingestion: if large amounts of magnesium powder are ingested, induce vomiting & consult a physician.
Note to physician: no specific treatment or antidote. Supportive care recommended. Treatment should be based on reactions of the patient.
There is very little information available on the environmental effects of magnesium oxide fume. If other mammals inhale magnesium oxide fume, they may suffer similar effects as do humans.
On an environmental spectrum of 0 - 3 Magnesium oxide fume registers 0.8. A score of 3 represents a very high hazard to the environment and 0 a negligible hazard. Factors that are taken into account to obtain this ranking include the extent of the material's toxic or poisonous nature and/or its lack of toxicity, and the measure of its ability to remain active in the environment and whether it accumulates in living organisms. It does not take into exposure to the substance.
Magnesium powder is not suspected of being highly harmful to the environment. As magnesium oxide an aquatic toxicity rating of tlm 1000 ppm has been established. "Water Quality Characteristics of Hazardous Materials", Hann & Jensen, Enviro. End. Div., Texas A&M, vol. 3 (1974).
Read more on magnesium in water
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